Gee Lawson News

Are you buying the right Choline?

Some of the choline ingredients on the market might be less expensive than others because they are in the DL form rather than L form. Under the name choline bitartrate we can find L-Choline Bitartrate (USP-NF, FCC, DAB10) and DL -Choline Bitartrate. But there are differences between them.

DL -Choline Bitartrate should not be used in pharma or food applications although the price is normally more attractive. Studies have that shown the DL-form has nephrotoxic effects (1).

In Europe, according to the CODEX and European Union, only L-Choline Bitartrate is allowed because it is mentioned in DAB and in the USP monograph. The DL form does not comply with these monographs. Moreover, according to the FDA, L-Choline Bitartrate is considered GRAS affirmed (21CFR182.8250_2010) but not the DL-form.

And there are also other differences between them as shown in the table below.


 Product  L-Bitartrate  DL-Bitartrate
 CAS  87-67-2  132215-92-0
 Melting point  147-152 ºC  144-149 ºC
 Specific rotation  17,5º - + 18,5º  none


If the raw material ingredient is conditioned or coated with silica, the melting point and specific rotation cannot be measured directly and this might unfortunately be used as a strategy by some distributors in the market to sell the DL form instead of the L form. We strongly advise you or your contract manufacturer partners to dissolve, filter and dry any samples before these parameters are measured and to ensure that the raw material provided is in the L form.


Gee Lawson offer fully traceability and consistent supply of L-choline. Please contact us for further information or visit our product pages L-Choline Bitartrate and L-Choline Bitartrate 1% Aerosil. Other grades also available from our manufacturer.